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Filipinos Also Speak Other Languages and Dialects

Before you end this module, there is one final lesson you need to study. It is true
that the Philippines must have a national language. We must all work together to
achieve this goal. But we must not do so at the expense of forgetting or taking for
granted other languages or dialects spoken in the country. The national language must
not be used as an instrument with which to shut off other cultures or other people.

It is important for you to understand that although it is very important that you
learn to speak our national language, this does not mean it is the only language you
should speak. Speaking in English or in your own dialect does not mean you are not
nationalistic or that you honor our national language less. You can learn to speak the
national language, value your local dialect and be fluent in English at the same time!

In this lesson we will discuss the importance and the functions of the different
Filipino dialects and languages as well as our secondary language, English, in our lives
as Filipinos.

Let’s Try This

Look at the picture below. Take note of the signs that you see.
New Picture (0)

Does this street look familiar? It is just like any street you would see anywhere in
the Philippines. How many signs were you able to spot? Write them down below.

What do these signs have in common? They are all written in English! These are
familiar signs you see all over the country.

Try to look around your neighborhood. Count how many signs, posters and
advertisements are written in English.

How many were you able to count?

Let’s Try This

Study the picture below.New Picture (1)

Let’s Think About This

  1. What is the picture trying to show?

  2. Do you believe that what is portrayed in the picture is really happening in our
    country today? How?

  3. Is the situation being portrayed in the picture good or bad for us and for our
    country? Why?

Now compare your answers with the ones below:

  1. The Filipino superhero represents the Filipino language. The superhero with the word English on its chest represents the English language.
    The picture shows how Filipino is taking the center stage. It is pushing the English language out of the scene. This illustrates how the Filipino language is becoming the sole medium of communication in the Philippines.
  2. Although English is still widely used in the country today, Filipino is
    becoming the most favored medium of communication. Although Filipino
    remains the language of the masses, even those in the middle class are now
    using Filipino to communicate with each other. Filipino is now the language
    in school corridors and canteens, in homes and neighborhoods, restaurants,
    supermarkets, newspaper, news broadcasts, TV programs, etc. On the other
    hand, Filipino has not replaced English as the written and read language of
    higher education, in government correspondences and communication, and
    in professional licensure exams.
  3. The issue on the use of Filipino as the sole medium of instruction over
    English seems to be a never-ending debate. So-called patriotic citizens and
    nationalists call for unity and national pride through the use of Filipino as
    the sole medium of communication in the whole country. They argue that
    countries like Japan, North Korea, China and others were able to achieve
    economic progress without the aid of the English language.
On the other hand, these countries are now eager to learn the English
language. They see English as a tool in today’s age of information.
Advances in technology and science are written in English. Therefore, if you
want your country to be globally competitive, English is the language to
learn. Aside from this, it is the English language skills of our Philippine
labor force that attracts foreign investors. Even our Overseas Foreign
Workers (OFWs) have a competitive edge over those from other countries
because of their English speaking skills.

Let’s Read

The Bilingual Education Policy of the Department of Education, Culture and
Sports (DECS) was first implemented in 1974. It was again promulgated in
compliance with the 1987 Constitution.
The bilingual policy involves the use of both English and Filipino as mediums of
instruction in schools all over the country.

Let’s Think About This

How do you think the DECS Bilingual Education Policy will affect the status of
the English language in the Philippines? Write your ideas in the spaces provided

The bilingual policy implies that English is still recognized as a useful and
important medium of communication in the country.

Let’s Learn

Despite the existence of Filipino, the official national language, English is still
widely used in the country today. Do you know why?

English was, after all, our first national language. Filipinos have used it for many,
many years and it has taken root in our culture and consciousness. It is used in media,
like television, newspapers and radio. It is used in entertainment. It is used in official
proceedings and functions—in courtrooms, in the Senate, in government offices and
in business transactions. It is also the language of science, mathematics and

English is considered the international language and we cannot deny its
importance. We cannot use Tagalog, Filipino or any of our dialects to communicate
with people from different parts of the world. But English is used and understood in
many countries all over the world, and people all over the world understand each other
through it. The countries that use the English language cover almost half of the total
land area of the world.

Also, more and more Filipinos are going abroad to work. They are called
Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs. They go to work in other countries as laborers,
household servants, entertainers and even as professional workers. They help generate
income for our country. How can they survive in foreign countries if they do not know
how to speak English?

There are many other instances where knowledge of the English language is
important. Another example is when you are using a computer to get information from
the Internet.

New Picture (2)

Did you know that 80% of all computer websites on the Internet are in English?
The Internet is fast becoming a major force in world business and relations. It is now
the greatest source of information that people all over the world can access. What a
great loss to Filipinos if they cannot make use of this information source because
they cannot understand English!

Also, we will not be able to keep in touch with the latest advances in science and
technology if we have a poor command of English. Most researches and journals on
these matters are, after all, written in English.

Now that we have a national language, should we let go of English completely?

If you take the English language away, our culture would suffer a terrible loss. It
would be like pulling a leg off of our national identity. English is a part of our past,
our culture and our identity as Filipinos. It is, furthermore, the international language.
It is the key that can open doors for us in international relations and political growth.
Why should we throw it away?

Nevertheless, you must keep in mind that Filipino is still our national language.
English and Filipino are both important to us. We must learn to speak and appreciate
them both.

As of today, English is still a very powerful language in the country. You must
learn to speak it if you want to improve your career and your life. When applying for a
job, for instance, it would be an extra point for you if you can speak English fluently.

Let’s Try This

Look at the following picture.New Picture (3)

Let’s Think About This

  1. What does the picture portray?

  2. Do you think what is shown in the picture is good for us and for our country?
    Why or why not?

Now compare your answers with the ones below:

  1.  The picture shows the English language and Filipino, the national language,shoving aside a superhero with “dialect” written on his chest. He represents
    the many local dialects spoken in different parts of the Philippines. This
    means that because of the great importance we place on English and Filipino,
    we are setting aside or rejecting our local dialects.
  2. What is shown in the picture is not good for us and for our country. Our
    dialects are as important as English and Filipino. They have their own
    functions and roles. They should be given as much importance as the other

Let’s Read

Do you remember Nena? You met her in Lesson 1. She is the girl who lives in a
boarding house with different girls from all over the Philippines.New Picture (4)

Let’s Try This

Look at the pictures below. These people are saying “I love you” in the different
languages and dialects spoken in our country.New Picture (5)New Picture (6)
New Picture (7)
New Picture (8)
New Picture (9)
Just as there are many different ways to express love, so there are many beautiful
ways Filipinos can express themselves through their local dialects. Were you able to
find your dialect in the examples shown above and on the previous page? Using your
dialect shows that you are proud of your people and proud of your Filipino heritage.

Let’s Learn

The Philippines is made up of many different groups of people with many
beautiful but different cultures. Our dialects are representations of these diverse
cultures. If we give up our dialects, it is just like turning our backs on our cultural
identities and heritage.

Learning how to speak Filipino and English may be the key to national
development, but preserving the different dialects is the key to preserving our heritage.
This includes native songs and dances, folktales, beliefs, traditions and others. All
efforts must be made to preserve our heritage by translating them in Filipino and
propagating them through the different parts of the country.

Regional languages and provincial dialects are important because they remain the
lingua franca (common language) outside of Metro Manila. If you live in the province,
it is the language you use at home. It is the language you are most familiar with and
find easiest and most comfortable to speak every day. Because of this, most probably
you express yourself best in this language.

Be proud of your dialect. It is the embodiment of your cultural and traditional
roots. Do not be ashamed to speak it in public. But neither should you brag about it,
judging other dialect-speaking groups as inferior. We live in a culturally diverse
country. Each and every different dialect and culture is precious and beautiful,
however different each may be.

Let’s Try This

New Picture (10)
This is how Filipino, English and the local dialects should be. One should not be
considered better than the other. All are equally important. If they are allowed to work
together, they can help us improve our lives and our country.


Let’s See What You Have Learned

Fill in the blanks with the necessary words or phrases to complete the following

  1. The DECS Bilingual Education Policy involves

  2. In the Philippines, English is used in
  3. English is important for Filipino OFWs because
  4. My local dialect is important because
  5. Filipino, English and our local dialects are _________________________.
    All three together can help us attain a prosperous, peaceful and stable nation.

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key here. If you got three
or more correct, congratulations! You have successfully finished the last lesson of
this module. You may now take the post-test. Good luck!


If you got 1, 2 or no points at all, just go back to the parts of the lesson you did
not understand before taking the post-test.

Let’s Remember

It is important for you to keep in mind that although you must learn, speak and
appreciate our national language, you should also do the same for English and the
other languages and dialects spoken in the country. They are equally important and
serve useful functions that can help us improve our lives and our country.

Filipinos Speak Filipino

We have talked a lot about how our present official national language developed.
We have also learned about studies that show how Filipino is increasingly becoming
accepted and spoken by more and more Filipinos every year. We have said that every
Filipino must learn to speak Filipino in order for us to grow in strength and unity as a
nation. But what exactly is Filipino? This is a very important question, and one that we
will try to answer here.

After studying this lesson, you should know our national language fairly well.
You should be able to tell the difference between it and other Philippine languages,
particularly Tagalog. You should also be able to tell when and how it should be used.

Let’s Try This

Below is a paragraph in Tagalog. Read it carefully.

Pumasok ang guro sa silid-aralan dala ang kanyang mga aklat. Sumulat siya
sa pisara sa pamamagitan ng tisa, at inutusan niya ang mga mag-aaral na kunin
ang kanilang mga takdang-aralin.

Now try writing that again, this time in Filipino.

Compare your translation with the one below.

Pumasok ang titser sa klasrum dala ang kanyang mga libro. Sumulat siya sa
blakbord sa pamamagitan ng tsok, at inutusan niya ang mga estudyante na kunin
ang kanilang mga asayment.

How did you find the activity? Did you have any difficulty translating the
paragraph into Filipino?

Let’s Think About This

  1. Do you think Filipino is just Tagalog with a new name?

  2. If you answered no to the first question, how do you think Filipino is different from Tagalog? Use the translation in the previous activity to guide you.

You will find out more about this issue in the discussion that follows.

Let’s Learn

If you will observe the translation on page 28, you will notice that Filipino is still
very similar to Tagalog, but many words have been changed. Let us look at some of

guro titser
silid-aralin klasrum
aklat libro
pisara blakbord
tisa tsok
mag-aaral estudyante
takdang-aralin asayment

Can you see how the words have been changed? More importantly, can you tell
why they have been changed?

Look at the new Filipino words again. Do they sound familiar? They probably do.
They are borrowings from other languages spoken in the Philippines, particularly
English and Spanish. If you look at them closely, you will notice that:

titser is derived from the English word teacher;
klasrum is derived from the English word classroom;
libro is the exact same Spanish word for “book”;
blakbord is derived from the English word blackboard;
tsok is derived from the English word chalk;
estudyante is derived from the Spanish word estudiante; and
asayment is derived from the English word assignment.

So you can see that Filipino is different from Tagalog because it borrows more
heavily from other languages. Words from other languages are respelled, adopted,
affixed and borrowed. They are often written the way they are pronounced by
Filipinos. This is done in order to acknowledge the fact that these languages are a big
part of our culture. Most Filipinos often use these English and Spanish words instead
of their Tagalog equivalents. They are commonly used in everyday conversations and
even in television and radio programs and newspapers. At present, Filipino borrows
most heavily from the English language. Here are some more Filipino terms borrowed
or adapted from English:

accusation akusasyon faculty fakulti
action aksyon graduate gradweyt
appointed apoynted identity aydentiti
artificial artipisyal individual indibidwal
broadcast brodkast mass media mas midya
business bisnis national nasyonal
category kategori official opisyal
chairman tserman physical pisikal
commercial komersyal property properti
committee komite qualification kwalipikasyon
context konteksto sector sektor
control kontrol sentence sentens
conversation kumbersasyon situation sitwasyon
crisis krisis spiritual ispiritwal
declared idineklara stress istres
deliberate delibereyt textbook teksbuk
discussion diskasyon tricycle traysikol
election eleksyon variety barayti
elementary elementari version bersyon

We have looked at the foreign borrowings in the Filipino language, but what about
the borrowings from the local languages? Remember that in the 1987 Constitution,
Filipino is supposed to be “further developed and enriched on the basis of existing
Philippine and other languages.”

At present there are very few borrowings in the Filipino language from other
local languages. This is understandable because Filipino is still in the process of
development. Let us just hope that, in the future, the definition of Filipino as stated in
our Constitution will be fulfilled. That is, Filipino will hopefully contain more
borrowings from other Philippine languages.

Let’s Think About This

Based on what we have discussed so far, how would you describe the Filipino

Compare your answer with the one below:

The Filipino language is meant to be a beautiful mixture of different words,
concepts and tones from many languages used in the Philippines. Today, however, it
is still in the process of development and contains very few borrowings from local
languages. It is still based on Tagalog but it borrows heavily from many foreign
languages, most especially English.

Let’s Try This

Read the situations below and answer the questions asked.

New Picture
New Picture (1)
New Picture (2)
New Picture (3)

In the spaces below, write what you think each of the Filipinos above must do:





Do all your answers involve the use of Filipino, our national language? If so, then
you are right! Pedro must use Filipino in order to do business with the Samareños.
Julia should speak in Filipino in order to make friends and to work well with her
Manileño co-workers. Polo should make sure his film is in Filipino in order for all
Filipinos to understand it. Finally, Vina should sing her songs in Filipino so that the
entire country can understand and appreciate them. What does this tell you about the
use of Filipino?

Before we answer that question, let’s look at another situation.

Let’s Read

New Picture (4)

Loida is from Davao. She speaks Cebuano. She and her husband Dodong plant
orchids. They live in a small house beside the road. People passing by can see the
beautiful flowers that they grow. One day, Carmina, a flower shop owner from Manila,
noticed the flowers.

Carmina wanted to buy orchids for her shop. But since she was from Manila she
didn’t know how to speak Cebuano. It was a good thing Loida and Carmina both knew
how to speak Filipino. They were able to do business successfully. The two decided that
Loida and her husband would provide flowers for Carmina’s shop at a price that they
would set monthly.

To celebrate their sale and good fortune, Loida decided to take her children out for
a treat. They wanted to watch the new movie showing in town, starring a local action
hero. They invited Carmina to watch with them. Everyone enjoyed the movie because it
was written and performed in Filipino and they could all understand it very well.

After the nice movie, Carmina gave Loida and Dodong a book by F. Sionil Jose,
written in Filipino, as a parting gift. She also gave their children a casette tape of their
favorite song—“Sana Maulit Muli,” sung by Gary Valenciano. Eventually, Loida and
Carmina developed a good business relationship as well as a lasting friendship. To this
day, they often write each other letters, in Filipino of course!

Let’s Think About This

Based on the story, in what instances is Filipino useful as a medium of

Compare your answer with the one below:

In the story, the characters’ knowledge of Filipino became useful when:

  1. Carmina arranged for Loida to supply flowers to her flower shop in Manila;
  2. Carmina, Loida and her children watched a movie;
  3. Carmina gave Loida and Dodong a book;
  4. Carmina gave the children a casette tape of a Filipino song; and
  5. Carmina and Loida developed a good friendship and frequently wrote letters
    to each other.

This tells us that Filipino is useful in business transactions, in film, in literature,
in music and in personal communications between Filipinos from different provinces
or areas. In all of these cases it helps our people understand each other better and live
in harmony and peace.

Let’s Learn

There are no clear rules about the proper situations in which Filipino should be
spoken. You should use your common sense regarding this matter. But the instances in
which Filipino may be spoken and in which it can, in fact, be very useful include:

  1. Business transactions
    If everyone speaks a national language, business transactions between
    Filipino entrepreneurs and small businessmen from different parts of the
    Philippines would be possible.
  2. Education
    It is important that Filipino be taught in schools, so that children will be
    able to learn the national language. Aside from this, other subjects may also
    be taught in Filipino. The DECS Bilingual Education Policy provides for the
    use of Filipino and English in schools. This will be discussed more in the
    next lesson.
  3. Services
    Filipino will be very useful in many important services involving health,
    transportation, calamity relief and others. A Cebuano doctor needs to
    understand what is ailing his Pampango patient, for example. Without the use
    of a common language like Filipino, how can they understand each other?
  4. Literature and entertainment
    Movies, television shows, books and other forms of entertainment
    would be better understood by all Filipinos if they are delivered or written in
    a language common to all. In fact, the use of Filipino in literature and
    entertainment is one of the best ways to teach the people how to speak
    Filipino. It is also a good way to show the beauty of the language.
  5. Information
    Important news events and other significant pieces of information, if
    broadcast or delivered in Filipino, may be easily understood by people from
    all over the country.
  6. Personal communication
    Perhaps the most important function of our national language is to bring
    us Filipinos closer together. If you use Filipino when conversing, writing
    letters or emails or in any other form of personal communication, you can
    gain many more new friends from all over the country.

Let’s See What You Have Learned

  1. Answer the following questions.
  2. Enumerate the instances that we have discussed in which the Filipino
    language may be spoken and may in fact be very useful. Cite an example for
    each. (2 points each)

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on pages 53–54. Are all or
most of your answers correct? The perfect score for this test is 20. If you got 11 and
above, very good! You have passed the test and may go to the last lesson.

If you got 10 points and below, that’s okay. Review this lesson first before
proceeding to the next one.

Let’s Remember

  • Filipino is different from Tagalog because it contains heavy borrowings
    from English and other languages. It is meant to be a mixture of different
    languages used in the Philippines. Today, however, it is still in the process of
    development and contains very few borrowings from local languages. It is
    still based on Tagalog but it borrows heavily from many foreign languages,
    most especially English and Spanish.
  • Filipino is very useful in many aspects of life, including business, education,
    services, literature, entertainment, information and personal

Why Filipino?

Lesson 2

Of all the many languages spoken in our country, which one is our national
language? Do you know how we came to have one? Are you familiar with how it was
developed? Are you aware of the many issues surrounding its development and use?
Now that you know how important a national language is for a country and its
people, it is time to discuss our very own national language. After studying this
lesson, you should be able to confidently answer “yes” to the questions above. Ready?
Okay, let’s begin.

Let’s Read

One day, I overheard three kids from my neighborhood—Paulo, Sheila and
Dennis—arguing about the Philippine national language. This is how their discussion

New PictureNew Picture (1)New Picture (2)New Picture (3)New Picture (4)New Picture (5)

Let’s Try This

What about you? Do you know what our national language is? Check your answer


If you answered Filipino, you are correct!
But why did I tell the children that they are all correct but all wrong? Can you
figure out the answer? Think carefully about what the children said, then write your
ideas below.

Now compare your answer with the one below:

All of the children are right in a way, but they are also all wrong in a way.
Why? Well, let’s review the statements made by each child.
Paulo said that the national language of the Philippines is Pilipino. He is right
in a way—our national language was indeed originally called Pilipino. This was
decades ago, however. Pilipino used to be the name of our national language. It is
no longer true today. So he is also wrong.
Sheila said that the national language is Tagalog. Well, in a way she is right
because our national language was originally derived from the Tagalog language.
But it is different from Tagalog. So she is not entirely right.
Of all three children, Dennis gave the most accurate answer. The official name
of the national language of the Philippines today is indeed Filipino. This is the
term used in both the 1973 and 1987 Philippine Constitution to refer to the
“national language” of the Philippines. However, Dennis was wrong when he said
that Filipino is totally different from Pilipino and Tagalog. As we have discussed,
our national language used to be called Pilipino, and it was derived from Tagalog.

Let’s Learn

Even before the Spaniards came to our country, our ancestors were already using
different languages. They were divided into different groups who lived in different
parts of the islands. There were dark and curly-haired people living in the mountains.
They spoke a different language from the fishermen living by the sea. There were also
farmers in the different islands who spoke different languages.
When the Spaniards came, instead of establishing a national language, they even
encouraged language differences among Filipinos so that they could have better
control over them. However, they established one language—Spanish—as the official
medium of communication to be used in formal schools, religious ceremonies and
government transactions. Thus, Spanish words became part of many local languages
and dialects.
When the Americans took over, they made sure that Filipinos learned how to
speak English. They considered education in English a useful way to unify a people
that spoke many different languages and dialects. So teachers taught English all over
the country. This was the only language used for instruction. English became the first
national language of the Philippines.
After some time, people in the government began seriously discussing the need
for a national language. They argued that it was necessary for national solidarity and

New Picture (6)

Manuel L. Quezon
President Manuel L. Quezon recognized the country’s need for a national
language. He said that it “constitutes one of the strongest ties that bind the people and
foster the unity of national ideals, aspirations and sentiments.”

This issue was brought up in the Constitutional Convention held at the time. As a
result, the 1935 Constitution provided at last for the “development and adoption of a
common national language based on one of the existing native dialects.” Accordingly,
the National Language Institute was created to undertake the selection of the said
native dialect. This was composed of eleven representatives from different
communities around the country. After a survey and study of existing local languages,
the Institute recommended Tagalog as the core or basis of the national language.
In 1937, President Quezon proclaimed Tagalog as the basis of the national
language. He believed that having our own national language would help resolve
differences among Filipinos who spoke different languages and dialects. He also
wanted the Filipinos to speak a language not borrowed from the Spaniards or the
Americans. He even declared August 13 to 19 of every year as the National Language
Week or Linggo ng Wika in honor of the Philippine national language. For these
reasons, Manuel L. Quezon is known to this day as the Father of the Filipino Language.

Let’s Think About This

The selection of Tagalog by the National Language Institute sparked a lot of
controversy. “Why Tagalog?” many non-Tagalog speakers wanted to know. Why,
indeed, did the Institute not choose Cebuano, Ilocano or Hiligaynon instead? There are
many other dialects spoken in the country aside from Tagalog.
Do you agree with the National Language Institute’s conclusion that Tagalog
should be used as the basis for the national language of the Philippines? Why or why

Compare your answer with the one below.

 After serious deliberations on the studies that they conducted, the National

Language Institute selected Tagalog as the basis of the national language. The
reasons why Tagalog was chosen were the following:

  1. Tagalog is widely spoken and is the most understood language in all the
    regions of the Philippines. It is spoken in Manila, central and
    south-central Luzon, the islands of Marinduque and Mindoro, and some
    parts of Mindanao.
  2. It is not divided into dialects, like Visayan for example.
  3. Tagalog literature is the richest. More books are written in Tagalog than
    in any other native language.
  4. Tagalog has always been the language of Manila, the capital city, even
    before the Spaniards came.
  5. Tagalog was the language of the Revolution and the Katipunan – two
    events in our history that we can truly be proud of.

The poet Francisco Baltazar Balagtas wrote the epic poem Florante at Laura,
one of the greatest literary treasures of the Philippines, in Tagalog.
So yes, I would have to agree with the Institute’s findings.
Nevertheless, I believe the national language should only be lightly based on
Tagalog, and should contain many elements from the other languages spoken
around the country.

Let’s Learn

The controversy about the Philippine national language continued. The use of
Tagalog as the basis for the national language offended many Filipinos. They believed
that their languages were not represented in the national language. They refused to
accept the Tagalog-based national language.

To show that the national language was not really Tagalog, but just based on it, it
was named Pilipino in 1959. Pilipino was gradually introduced as the medium of
instruction all over the country. Filipino children were made to study both Pilipino
and English and were taught all their lessons in these two languages. This was called
the bilingual education policy. Bilingual means “two languages.”

But many Filipinos still would not accept Pilipino. Do you know why? Look at
the following words:


Do you know what these words mean? Write your answers in the blanks.

Here are their meanings:
Salumpuwit means “chair.”
Salimpapaw means “airplane.”
Sipnayan means “mathematics.”
Salongsuso means “brassiere.”

Can you imagine using these words in your daily conversations? Have you ever
heard somebody say in ordinary speech: “Binigyan ako ng salumpuwit sa
salimpapaw upang mag-aral ng sipnayan”? Can you imagine a mother saying to her
young daughter: “Iha, kailangan mo nang magsuot ng salongsuso.” Many people
found these words funny and ridiculous.

Pilipino became very artificial because many new words were created to be
included in it that nobody really wanted to use. Furthermore, many people protested
that it was still very similar to Tagalog.

To solve the problem, a new language was proposed. This time it would still be
based mainly on Tagalog, but it would include many elements from the different local
and foreign languages spoken in the Philippines. The 1973 Constitution stated that the
new language, to be called Filipino, should be developed and eventually adopted as the
common national language of the Philippines. Meanwhile, Pilipino and English would
remain the official languages of the country.

Finally, in 1987, it was declared in the Constitution that, “the national language
of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and
enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.” Filipino was to
be used in all official communications. It would also be the medium of instruction in
schools. It would serve as an instrument of unity and peace for national progress.

Assigned to look after the development of Filipino is the Commission on the
Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino). The commission is mandated to
undertake, coordinate and promote research for the development, propagation and
preservation of Filipino and other Philippine languages.

On July 15, 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos declared August of every year as
“National Language Month,” He chose August because President Manuel L. Quezon,
considered the Father of the National Language, was born on August 19.

Let’s Think About This

Do you think that more Filipinos are using or are able to speak our wikang
pambansa today? What is your basis for your answer? Write your answers below.

Read the answer below. Compare it with yours.

A study was undertaken by Xavier University on which Philippine language
was most widely used by Filipinos throughout the years. It clearly indicates that
from 1960 to 1990, the number of those who were using Filipino as a language
increased more than that of those using other Philippine languages. The study
shows that Filipino is becoming effective as a national language; it is being
patronized by the people.
In fact, a 1989 NSO survey revealed that 92 percent of Filipinos were at least
able to speak the wikang pambansa, thus effectively establishing Filipino as the
national language of the Philippines.

Let’s Try

Do you think Filipino has really been accepted by the Filipino people as their
national language? Find out for yourself. Conduct a survey in your community. Here
are the questions you should ask your friends and neighbors:

  1. Do you speak Filipino?
  2. Do you accept Filipino as our national language?

Afterward, review the information you have gathered and write your conclusions
on a piece of paper. Discuss your findings with your Instructional Manager or
co-learners, friends and family members.

What do they think about your findings?

Let’s See What You Have Learned

Put a check mark (4) in the box before the correct answer.

  1. Even before the Spaniards came, our ancestors were already speaking a
    common language.
  2. The first national language of the Philippines was
    none of the above
  3. Pilipino was not accepted by many Filipinos because
    it was still mostly Tagalog-based
    it contained many artificial words that nobody wanted to use
    both of the above (the first and second statements)
    it was based on a foreign language
  4. The ______ Constitution proclaimed Filipino the official national language
    of the Philippines.
  5. Filipino was created in 1987 and is now a fully-developed language.

Finished? Look in the Answer Key on page 53 to check your answers. If you got
at least 3 points, congratulations! You may now move on to the next lesson.
If you got 1 or 2 points, or none at all, don’t be discouraged. This lesson

contained many dates and facts that may be confusing. All you need to do is go back
and study these again. It would be better if you take the above test again to see if
you’ve understood this lesson well before proceeding to the next one. Good luck!

Let’s Remember

  • The first national language of the Philippines was English.
  • A new national language was developed in the 1930s. But because it was
    based on Tagalog, many non-Tagalog speakers did not accept it.
  • President Manuel L. Quezon helped bring about the development of a new
    language that would be the official Philippine national language. For this
    reason, he is known to this day as the Father of the National Language.
  • The national language was named Pilipino in 1959 in order to correct the
    misconception that it was really plain Tagalog. Many new words were coined
    for Pilipino, but these were too difficult and artificial, and many people did
    not accept them.
  • A new national language was conceived, to be named Filipino. This was
    provided for in the 1973 Constitution. Meanwhile, English and Pilipino
    remained the official languages of the country.
  • The new language, Filipino, was finally proclaimed as the official national
    language of the Philippines in the 1987 Constitution. According to the
    constitution, Filipino is to contain borrowings from the different local and
    foreign languages spoken in the country.
  • Studies show that, so far, Filipino has been accepted, learned and spoken by
    more and more Filipinos every year.

Lets try what we have learn here

A Language of Our Own Answer Key

Answer Key

A. Let’s See What You Already Know (pages 2–3)


  1. F — Filipino is mostly based on Tagalog.
  2. T
  3. F— Filipino is based on Tagalog, but is also different fromTagalog because it has borrowed many elements from foreign and
    local languages, especially English.
  4. F— The national language is important, but our local dialects are
    also important. They represent our cultural heritage and diversity.
  5. F— English is just as important as the national language. It is the
    international language and the second official language of our


  1. (a). One of the reasons why Tagalog was adopted as the basis of our
    national language is because it is the language spoken in Manila,
    the capital city. (c) is wrong because the judges in the Assembly
    that decided on a national language were from different regions in
    the Philippines. (b) is wrong because Tagalog, English and Spanish
    are all equally important languages. (d) is wrong because although
    President Quezon did speak Tagalog, the decision to choose
    Tagalog did not come from him, but from the judges.
  2. (b). It is better to use Filipino or English as the need arises. Using
    only Filipino (a) will put us at a disadvantage when competing
    globally. Using only English (c) will not promote our cultural
    identity. Using neither Filipino nor English (d) will not work,
    either. Filipino and English are known to more people than any
    other Philippine language.
  3. (c). For his determination in having a national language, Manuel L.
    Quezon is considered as the Father of our National Language.
  4. (d). Having a national language is important because it promotes
    learning through teacher-student interaction, allows effective
    exchange of ideas and information, and enables people to interact
    with each other.
  5. (c). Your local dialect is just as important as English and Filipino.

B. Lesson 1

Let’s Try This 

     1. Nena  Butuan  Cebuano
     2. Minda  Batangas  Tagalog
     3. Amy  Ilocos Sur  Ilocano
     4. Lila  Bicol  Bicolano
     5. Karina  Marawi  Maranao
     6. Leslie  Samar  Waray
     7. Ana  Pampanga  Pampango
  2. The girls in the boarding house understand each other well and are in
    fact very good friends because they all know how to speak the national
    language, Filipino.
  3. Like the girls in the boarding house, all Filipinos from different regions
    with different cultures can live together in harmony and peace if they
    can understand each other through a national language.

Let’s Try This 

  1. Personal communication
  2. Education
  3. Exchange of information
  4. Teamwork

Let’s See What You Have Learned

  1. dialect
  2. eight
  3. identity
  4. social, political
  5. speak

C. Lesson 2

Let’s See What You Have Learned

  1. Incorrect. The statement should be: Even before the Spaniards came,
    our ancestors were already speaking different languages.
  2. none of the above. The first national language of the Philippines was
  3. both of the above (the first and second statements)
  4. 1987
  5. Incorrect. Filipino was made the official language of the Philippines in
    1987. It was not created then. As it is, it is still in the process of
    development up to the present.

D. Lesson 3

Let’s See What You Have Learned

a. (4 points each)

  1. Tagalog is a local language spoken in Manila and in central and
    south-central Luzon, the islands of Marinduque and Mindoro, and
    some parts of Mindanao. Filipino is the Philippine national
    language. It is based on Tagalog but contains heavy borrowings
    from other languages, particularly English.
  2. The Filipino language is meant to be a beautiful mixture of
    different words, concepts and tones from many languages used in
    the Philippines. Today, however, it is still in the process of
    development and contains very few borrowings from local
    languages. It is still based on Tagalog but it borrows heavily from
    many foreign languages, most especially English.

b. (2 points each)

  1. business transactions
    Ex. When a Cebuano fruit dealer wants to do business with a fruit
    vendor in Manila, they should speak a common language.
  2. education
    Ex. Filipino is taught in schools all over the country and many
    subjects are taught in this language.
  3. services
    Ex. A Pampango plumber and his Cebuano customer need to
    understand each other in order for the plumber to know
    exactly what needs to be done.
  4. literature and entertainment
    Ex. Many good Filipino movies, such as Muro-ami and Jose
    Rizal, are in Filipino.
  5. information
    Ex. Many television networks, newspapers and radio stations
    deliver news in Filipino.
  6. personal communications
    Ex. Filipinos from different language groups can communicate
    and become friends through a common language.

E. Lesson 4

Let’s See What You Have Learned

Answer to questions 3 and 4 are sample answers only. Your answers may
be slightly different. You can show them to your Instructional Manager for
additional feedback.

  1. the use of both English and Filipino as mediums of instruction in
    schools all over the country
  2. media; entertainment; official proceedings and functions; in
    courtrooms; in the Senate; in government offices; in business
    transactions; in math, science and technology; in dealings with
    foreigners; on the Internet; and in many other areas of Philippine life
  3. through it, they are able to work abroad, be understood by and live in
    harmony with people from different parts of the world
  4. it represents my cultural heritage and it is a reflection of the cultural
    diversity that makes the Philippines a beautiful country
  5. equally important

E. What Have You Learned?

Answers to questions A and B are sample answers only. Your answers
may be different. You can show them to your Instructional Manager for
additional feedback.

a. The Filipino language is meant to be a beautiful mixture of different
words, concepts and tones from many languages used in the Philippines.
Today, however, it is still in the process of development and contains
very few borrowings from local languages. It is still based on Tagalog
but it borrows heavily from many foreign languages, most especially

b. A national language can help:

  1. a country achieve political strength and stability;
  2. in the economic growth of a nation;
  3. promote understanding and mutual appreciation among the people
    of a country;
  4. link the people of a nation wherever they are in the world, as a
    badge of national identity; and
  5. establish friendships and communication among people from
    different language groups in a country.


  1. True. At present, English is still one of the official languages of
    our country. Our constitution states that Filipino and English shall
    be used as mediums of instruction in our country.
  2. False. The Bilingual Education Policy of DECS involves the use of
    English and Filipino as mediums of instruction.
  3. True. One of the reasons why Tagalog was chosen as the basis for a
    national language is because it is the language spoken in Manila,
    which is the capital city of the Philippines.
  4. False. Filipino should be spoken by all Filipinos along with
    English and their native dialects.
  5. True. A national language promotes economic, political, social and
    cultural development.


What Is a National Language For?

Lesson 1

How important is a national language? For an archipelago such as the Philippines, with 7,107 islands in which many different languages and thousands of dialects are spoken, it is very important indeed!

In this lesson, we will discuss the different functions of a national language. After studying it, you should be able to easily identify the importance of a national language in a country’s social, political, cultural and economic growth. You should thus be able to explain why every Filipino needs to learn to speak our national language.

Let’s Sing

Do you know this song? This was composed by Florante. Let’s try to sing it.
Ako’y Isang Pinoy
Ako’y isang Pinoy, sa puso’t diwa,
Pinoy na isinilang sa ating bansa.
Ako’y hindi sanay sa wika ng mga banyaga.
Ako’y Pinoy na mayroong sariling wika.
Wikang pambansa ang tangi kong salita.
Bayan kong sinilangan
Hangad kong lagi ang kalayaan.
Si Gat Jose Rizal noo’y nagwika.
Siya ay nagpangaral sa ating bansa:
Ang hindi marunong magmahal sa sariling wika
Ay higit pa ang amoy sa mabahong isda.

What did you feel after singing the song? Did you understand what it is trying to
say? Write down what you think the song is about in the spaces provided below.

The song is written in Filipino, our national language. It tells us that using and
being proud of our national language is a way of showing our love for our country.
Almost all countries have a national language. Do you want to know why? Read
this module carefully to learn about the importance of a national language to a country
and its people.

Let’s Read

Read the comic strip below carefully.

New Picture(0)New Picture (1)New Picture (2)New Picture (3)New Picture (4)New Picture (5)New Picture (6)

Let’s Try

Did you enjoy reading about Nena and her friends? Answer the questions below
to see how much you understood.

  1. The girls in the boarding house come from different places in the
    Philippines. Can you name the province each girl comes from and the
    language that she and her people speak?

  2. Try to answer Nena’s final question: how indeed do the girls in the boarding
    house communicate with each other and understand each other so well if
    they speak different languages? Write your ideas below.

  3. Imagine that the boarding house is the Philippines and the girls who live
    there are groups of people from different regions of the country. What can a
    national language do for the Filipinos?

Now it’s time to look in the Answer Key here and compare your answers
with the ones given there.

Let’s Learn

Did you know that hundreds of different languages are spoken all over the
Philippines? Of these, eight are considered “mother tongues” or major languages:
Ilocano, Pangasinan, Pampango, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-
Samarnon. For each of these languages, there are hundreds of dialects spoken in
different places all over the country.

Do you know how a language is different from a dialect? A language is a system
of communication used by a very large number of people. For example, many people
from the Visayas speak Cebuano. But because they belong to different groups who live
in different regions there, some of them developed different ways of speaking
Cebuano. Some words may have been changed a little, or the way it is spoken may be
different. This difference in the way a language is spoken is called a dialect. A dialect
is spoken by a smaller number of people. Most people who speak different dialects of
the same language understand each other, but some do not.

Can you imagine how difficult it would be for Filipinos speaking different
languages and dialects to understand each other if there were no common language?
And what would happen if we could not communicate with each other? Would there be
lots of fighting as a result of misunderstanding? What aspects of our daily lives would
be affected if we were not able to communicate well with each other?

The following are aspects of our lives that are affected by communication:

  1. Personal communication – What is the language that you use when you
    communicate with members of your family, your friends or relatives? Are
    you using a language that can be understood by all? Do you have a relative
    who lives in another province and speaks another language? How will you
    express your feelings and ideas to him/her if you don’t speak the same
  2. Education – How can a teacher or instructor successfully impart knowledge
    to the learners if they speak different languages? Can you imagine an
    Ilonggo-speaking teacher discussing lessons with an Ilocano-speaking
    learner? A national language effectively promotes learning. Student-teacher
    interaction and exchange of information is successfully performed through a
    national language.
  3. Exchange of information – We communicate with other people to
    exchange information. What would happen if the information given to us was
    spoken or written in a language that we do not understand? Then, the
    exchange of information would not be done effectively.
  4. Planning and decision-making – Whether you are in a family, group or
    community, planning and decision-making will be best achieved if there is
    understanding among the members. Understanding can be achieved if the
    people express themselves in a language common to them.
  5. Teamwork – In building something, let’s say a house, all the builders or
    carpenters must work together as a team to produce the best quality house.
    What will happen if one of them decides to place the kitchen where the other
    intends to place the bathroom? This will create a problem. Again, building a
    house, or anything for that matter, can be done if there is understanding
    among the members of a group or team. This can be done if they
    communicate well with each other.
  6. Community participation – Each member in the community can share his/
    her opinion through the use of a national language. Because they are able to
    express their ideas and opinions, there will be understanding among the
    members and they will be united.
  7. Legal system – It is important that rules, laws and guidelines be written in a
    single language that can be understood by all. In this manner, confusion will
    be avoided. How would you be able to follow a law if you do not understand

The function of language is to communicate ideas and emotions and give
information. Without a national language, different ethnic groups (Cebuano, Ilocano,
Kapampangan, etc.) in the Philippines would not understand each other and the
exchange of ideas and feelings would not be possible. Without a national language,
there would be an absence of communication and instruction, thus an absence of unity
among the people.

Let’s Try This

Identify the aspect of people’s daily lives affected by language as described in
each of the statements below.

  1. __________ Lina tried to talk to her Ilocano grandfather, but she
    couldn’t understand what he was saying.
  2. __________ Perla has just transferred to her new school in Cebu.
    She is confused as to what her teacher is saying
    because her teacher is using Cebuano in her
  3. __________ Mang Ramon, a businessman in Pangasinan, is in
    Bacolod to attend a seminar on new breeds of mangoes.
    Much to his surprise and confusion, the main speaker
    spoke in Ilonggo, a language that he does not
  4. __________ In a seminar that Fe attended, the participants were
    grouped and given a task to perform. When she found
    the group to which she belonged, she found out that she
    and her groupmates were from different regions in the
    Philippines and they all spoke different languages.
    Their problem was how they would work together.

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key here.

For a better illustration on how miscommunication due to differences in
language spoken can affect one’s daily life, read the comic strip in the next activity.

Let’s Read

One day, Marie received a phone call from her uncle who lives in Pampanga. He
has been there since he was five years old. He now speaks Pampango. From his frantic
voice over the phone, Marie sensed that there was something wrong. But she cannot
understand Pampango because she grew up in Manila. Let’s see what happened.

New Picture (7)New Picture (8)

Let’s Think About This

What would you do if you were Marie? What would you say next?

Let’s see how Marie resolved the problem.

What did Marie say to her uncle who was clearly in distress? New Picture (9)New Picture (10)

Marie’s grandmother was brought safely to the hospital. Can you imagine what
would have happened if there were no common language Marie and her uncle could
use to communicate?
The story shows how important a national language is, not only for our country,
but in our daily lives as well.

Let’s Think About This

  1. Can you tell how having a national language can benefit our country in terms
    of how our government runs it and how the people participate in its

  2. How can having a national language benefit our economy?
  3. How can having a national language affect the social and cultural
    development of our country?

Now compare your answers with the ones here:

  1. A national language can help us achieve political unity and strength.
    If Filipinos don’t understand each other, how can they express their
    ideas and opinions? But if we adopt a national language that everyone can
    understand, everyone can express his/her ideas and opinions and participate
    in the decision and policy-making processes of the government. This can be
    done through debates, surveys and discussions. People will also be able to
    follow laws and ordinances because these are written in a language that can
    be understood by all.
    Furthermore, the essence of democracy lies in “freedom of speech”
    that the constitution grants to its citizens/people. The people can best enjoy
    this if they can express their ideas and concerns to the different government
    officials. And having one common language will guarantee that they will be
    understood by the officials.
  2. A national language can help a lot in our country’s economic development.
    Imagine what would happen if Filipino traders and businessmen couldn’t
    understand each other. How would they transact business? By this is meant
    transactions between Filipino entepreneurs with smaller business from
    different parts of the Philippines who speak different languages. Big
    business transactions, especially involving foreign companies, are still
    conducted in English. What would happen to the country’s economy if
    businessmen weren’t able to transact business?
  3. A national language can promote social and cultural development.
    This is another significance of a national language. It promotes social
    and cultural development. When we say “social,” we refer to our daily
    interactions with other people, whether individually or in a group. Through a
    language that will be understood by all, an individual will be able to
    successfully interact with his countrymen. On the other hand, when we say
    “cultural,” this refers to practices, beliefs and traditions that are handed
    down to us by our ancestors and are passed on to the next generation. Native
    folklore, riddles, proverbs, dances, music, games and sports and even values
    from all the ethnic groups in our country can be preserved and passed on to
    many generations if translated in a common language. For example, the
    native Ilocano folktale, Biag Ni Lam-ang, can be read by the different ethnic
    groups—even those from Mindanao or Visayas. This can be done if it is
    translated into a common language. The various folklore, riddles, proverbs,
    dances, etc. of the different ethnic groups are enriched as they are
    propagated by the national language.
    The most important purpose of a national language is to promote
    understanding and mutual appreciation among the people of a country. With a
    national language, people can live in harmony with each other in a politically
    and economically stable nation.
    If all Filipinos speak a national language, everyone would be able to
    participate in the economic and political systems of the country. This way,
    we will not only help to improve our country, but our lives as well.
    How can a national language promote a cultural identity? To find out,
    read on.

Let’s Read

In an apartment in San Diego, California, USA…New Picture (11)New Picture (12)New Picture (13)

Let’s Think About This

Before you continue reading, try and answer Candy’s question first. Why not just
use English as our national language?

Now compare your ideas with the answer of Candy’s mother. Continue reading
the story.

Let’s Read

New Picture (14)


What does the story teach you? It shows you how our national language can be a
great bond that links Filipinos all over the country and the world. It is also a proud
badge of identity for millions of Filipinos working and living abroad.
Every free country has its own national language. Why do you think this is so? A
national language is a symbol of a people’s freedom, independence and unity. It
represents what we have gone through as a people (our history) and who we are at
This is why it is important that every Filipino learn to speak our national

Let’s See What You Have Learned

Fill in the blanks with the necessary word that will best complete the statements.
Choose your answer from the list of words below.

dialect social eight
identity political speak
  1. A ________________ is a regional variation of a language.
  2. There are now __________ major languages being used in the Philippines.
  3. Filipinos all over the world use the national language as a badge of ____________.
  4. A national language can help in our country’s ____________, cultural economic and _______________ development.
  5. Every Filipino should learn to ______________ the national language.

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key below. Are most of
your answers correct? Great! You may proceed to the next lesson.
If you got only 3 (or less than 3) of the 5 items right, that’s okay. Just review the
lesson, especially the parts you did not understand or remember.

Let’s Remember

  • A language is a system of communication used by a great number of people.
    A dialect is a different version of a certain language spoken by a smaller
    group of people.
  • There are eight major languages spoken in the Philippines: Ilocano,
    Pangasinan, Pampango, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-
    Samarnon. There are hundreds of dialects for each of these languages.
  • A national language can help us in the following ways:
    — It helps us communicate with each other more easily.
    — It gives us get a sense of our national identity.
  • A national language can help in the social, economic and political
    growth of our country.
  • It is important that every Filipino be able to learn and use the national
    language. Literacy in a national language is an important key to development.

For answer key click here

Maikling Kwento – Anting-anting

Anting-anting (Maikling Kwento)

Maikling-KwentoAng init ng panahon, si nanay abala na naman sa pagluluto ng pagkain. Malapit na din kasi magtanghalian at medyo kumukulo na rin ang tiyan ko pero kaya ko pa namang hintayin ang oras ng kainan. Sobrang init talaga ng panahon, bakit kaya ganun? Sana may kapangyarihan akong gumawa ng yelo para maging malamig sa bahay namin para naman di ganitong tagaktak na naman ang aking pawis. Basang-basa na ang sando ko sa pawis at di na din maganda ang pakiramdam ko dahil sa malagkit na kapit ng pawis sa aking di kaputiang balat.

Ahh teka, ako nga pala si Jojo, Jonathan sa totoong buhay. Eto ako ngayon at nag-iisip kung anong magandang kapangyarihan ba ang magandang taglayin pag naging super hero na ako pero ang pag-iisip na iyon ay naudlot ng bigla akong tawagin ni lolo na nakaupo sa kanyang tumba-tumba.

“Oh Lo bakit nyo po ako tinawag?” banggit ko pagkalapit ko sa kanya. “Wala naman apo, nais ko lang iwan sa iyo ang isang regalo na magpapabago sa iyong buhay.” Natawa na lang ako, si Lolo talaga mapag-imbento. Wala na naman siyang lupa na maipapamana sa amin dahil mahirap lang ang lahi namin, ano naman kayang pamana ang sinasabi ng lolo ko. “Eh ano ba yung ibibigay nyo sa akin Lolo?”

Kinuha niya ang  kaliwa kong kamay at ipinatong ang isang tila maliit na bato. Nang tingnan ko kung ano ang kabuuan ng batong iyon, napagtanto ko na isa palang kwintas na may palawit na bato ang ibinigay ni lolo. “Ahhh. Ang inyong anting. Bakit nyo naman po ito ibinibigay sa akin Lo?” “Apo, tapos na ang pangangalaga sa aking ng anting anting na yan. Dapat lang na ako’y lumisan na upang magkita na kaming muli ng iyong Lola. Mali na pahirapan ko pa kayo sa aking katandaan kaya apo tanggapin mo ang aking handog at ito’y pangalagaan.” Sabi niya sabay ngiti sa akin. Nakita ko pa tuloy ang bungal niyang bibig. Ngumiti na lang din ako bilang tugon at tinitigang muli ang kwintas. Pagkatapos noon ay sabay-sabay na kaming nananghalian kasama ang buong pamilya.

Kinagabihan, lumisan na si Lolo. Iniwan na nga niya kami at marahil ay masaya na silang magkasama ni Lola sa langit. Ilang araw na ibinurol si Lolo at sa kanyang libing ay isinuot ko na ang kanyang regalo bilang tanda ng paggalang kay Lolo at sa kanyang iniwang paniniwala.

Lunes ng umaga, may pasok na naman. Pagkatapos ng dalawang klase ay narinig kong nagkaayaan ang mga lalake kong kaklase. Nagtipon sila sa likuran ng silid aralan at nag-usap. Maya-maya pa ay lumapit sa akin ang isa sa aking mga kaklase at sinabi, “ Jo, sama ka sa amin mamaya.” “Bakit naman? Saan ang gala?” tanong ko. “Inom.” Napaisip ako. Mainit ang panahon, hindi magandang uminom ng mga ganitong oras at saka tinatamad ako kaya sabi ko na lang, “Pass muna ako tol.” “KJ mo naman Jo. Minsan lang ‘to.” Udyok ng kaklase ko. “Ayoko talaga bro. Sa susunod na lang. Init ng panahon oh.”

Kinagabihan pagkatapos naming kumain nakatanggap ako ng text mula sa nanay ng kaklase ko, hinahanap niya ang anak niya dahil hanggang ngayon ay hindi pa daw ito nauwi. Hindi naman ako nakasagot dahil hindi ko alam kung ano ang dapat kong sabihin. Ayoko namang mapagalitan ang tropa dahil sakin pero ayoko din namang magsinungaling sa mga magulang niya.

-          Nagkayayaan po ang barkada na uminom ng konti. Hindi ko lang po alam kung nasaan sila ngayon.

Yan na lang ang naisagot ko sa mensahe ng nanay ng kabarkada ko. Kinabukasan nalaman ko na lang sa klase na napaaway pala ang mga kabarkada ko at mga nasa ospital ngayon dahil sa mga sugat na natamo nila sa pakikipag-away sa isang grupo. Naisip ko tuloy, buti na lang tinamad ako at hindi sumama.

Dumaan pa ang mga araw at ilan pang mga insidente ang nalagpasan ko. Isa na dito yung nagkayayaang magswimming ang buong klase, sumama ako dahil nandun ang crush ko pero nagkaroon ng aberya, naiwan ko yung anting ni lolo sa school kaya kinailangan kong bumalik. Hinintay naman ako ng buong klase sa sakayan pero pagdating ko, ayaw na nilang lahat tumuloy. Nabalitaan ko na nagkaroon daw ng banggaan sa daan na dapat tatahakin ng sasakyan namin papunta sa paliliguan namin. Dahil sa takot nagsiurungan na sila sa pagtuloy. Sabi pa ng isa kong kaklase, buti na lang naiwan ko yung kwintas ko ung hindi baka isa din kami sa mga namatay at nasugatan sa banggaan kung nagkataon.

Hanggang ngayon na ako’y nagbibinata na maraming beses na akong nakaiwas sa maraming aksidente. Hindi ko alam kung talaga bang epektibo ang anting ni lolo pero ang alam ko lang, ginagawa ko lang kung ano ang nararamdaman kong dapat. Dikta man ng anting o hindi, susundin ko kung ano ang aking kutob. Di pa din ako desidido sa kapangyarihan ng anting pero mas mabuti na din na nasa akin ito. Mas panatag ang aking damdamin dahil pakiramdam ko, ginagabayan ako ni Lolo kasama si Lola mula sa itaas.

Aral : Bilang mga Pilipino mapagpaniwala tayo sa mga pamahiin at mga anting-anting. Mahirap maniwala sa mga bagay na hindi kapani-paniwala pero wala namang masama kung ating susubukan ang mga ito. Gayunpaman lagi nating tandaan na ang mga mangyayari sa atin sa hinaharap ay bunga ng mga desisyon na ginawa natin sa nakaraan. Ikaw ang humuhulma sa iyong kapalaran kung kaya’t dapat mong matutunang pangalagaan ito.

Maikling Kwento – Lipstick

Lipstick (Maikling Kwento)

Maikling-Kwento                Sa batas ng buhay hindi lahat ng hingiin mo ay maidudulot sa’yo. Hindi lahat ng tao, makakaintindi sa kalagayan at desisyon mo. Hindi lahat ng gagawin mo ay mapapahalagahan. Madalas sa mga taong kagaya ko ang hindi nabibigyan ng sapat na atensyon. Madalas kaming napag-iiwanan at tumpulan ng tukso.

Ako si Elisa, labing dalawang taong gulang, isang ulila. Nakatira ako dati sa isang bahay ampunan. Bago pa man ako dumating sa bahay ampunan, dati akong naninirahan sa isang maliit na kwarto kasama ang aking ina.

Siya ay isang magandang babae na may napakamaamong mukha pero sa oras na madampian ng lipstick ang kanyang mga labi, naglalaho ang mala-anghel na mukha ni nanay. Nagtatrabaho siya tuwing gabi. Papatulugin muna niya ako bago siya tuluyang umalis at pagdating ng umaga ay magigising na lang ako na naandiyan na siya at nagluluto ng agahan. Masaya kami noon ni nanay kahit na noon lagi akong tinutukso ng mga bata. Hindi ko na lang sila pinapansin, ang mahalaga naman makapag-aral ako para matuwa sakin si nanay. Nakakaawa kasi siya, ang payat na niya at ang putla na ng kulay niya. Tanging ang nag-iisa niyang lipstick na pula na lamang ang nagbibigay buhay sa kanyang mukha.

Ang simple naming buhay na pinangarap kong umunlad oras na makatapos ako ay natuldukan nang isang  malagim na pangyayari.

Pagsapit ng gabi ay naghanda nang umalis si nanay, sinuot ang maikli niyang bistida habang naglalagay na naman ng kanyang lipstick ay sinabi niya sa akin na magpakabait daw ako. Naalala ko pa nang muli niyang ikwento ang ginawa ng aking ama na pang-aabandona sa kanya ng malaman nito na buntis siya at kung paano siya pinalayas ng kanyang mga sariling magulang. Mag-isa niya akong itinaguyod at pinalaki kahit na nangangayayat at pagod na pagod na ang manipis niyang katawan. Kinalimutan na niyang umibig ng ibang lalake matapos ang naranasan niya kay tatay at sa akin na lang niya binuhos ang lahat ng kanyang atensyon. Labis akong minamahal ni nanay kung kaya’t nang gabing iyon sinabi ko sa sarili ko, hindi ko bibiguin si nanay. Magsisikap ako para makatulong sa kanya. Ako ang magsisilbing biyaya sa lahat ng kamalasang naranasan niya at sa ganoong pangangarap ako tuluyang inabot ng antok at nakatulog nang matiwasay. Nagising ako gaya ng nakagawian ngunit ang di ko inaasahan ay ang balitang narinig ko mula sa mga nagkakagulong kapitbahay. Si nanay, natagpuang wala ng buhay sa isang masukal na talahiban. Hinihinalang pinatay at ginahasa ng ilang lalake.

Doon gumuho lahat ng aking pangarap at ang mundong binalak kong buuin kasama ang aking nanay. Lahat ng iyon ay unti-unting nadurog at naging abo hanggang sa tangin ng hangin. Hindi ko namalayan nandito na lang ako sa bahay ampunan. Iniiwasan ng mga bata dahil anak daw ako ng isang Magdalena. Masasakit na salita na ikapopoot ng aking dibdib ang lagging laman ng makasalanan nilang mga bibig. Sinasabi nila na ang kamatayan ng aking ina ay nararapat lang dahil daw siya naman ay isang bayarang babae na handing bumukaka sa kahit na sino. Lahat ng masasakit na salita ay ibinato nila kay nanay kung kaya’t di ko mapigilang hindi sila saktan dahil sa labis na poot sa kanilang mga kasinungalingan. Maari ngang isang bayarang babae ang akin ina ngunit hindi kagaya ng imaheng kanilang iniisip ang aking ina. At nang dahil nga sa madalas akong masangkot sa mga away madalang ang nagkakainteres na ako’y ampunin dahil natatakot silang ako’y palakihin dahil sa hindi diumano magandang nakaraan ng aking buhay at ang madalas kong pakikipag-away. Lagi nila akong tinutukso at minamata na para bang ako ang pinakanakapandidiring bata sa ampunan pero naawa ako sa kanilang lahat dahil alam kong mayroon akong isang bagay na wala sila, ang aking ina. Wala man siya sa aking tabi alam kong lagi siyang mananahan sa aking puso hangga’t kasama ko ang kanyang paboritong lipstick.

Sa tuwing naalala ko siya ay isa lamang ang tumatatak sa aking isip. Ang kanyang matatamis na ngiti at mga pulang labi. Sa tuwing lalagyan ko ang aking mga labi ng pulang tinta na ito, lubos kong nararamdaman ang kanyang mainit na pagmamahal sa akin, ang nag-iisa niyang anak. Ako si Elisa.

Mga Salawikain

Halimbawa ng Salawikain

Ang mga Salawikain ay maiikli ngunit matatalinhagang pangungusap na naglalaman ng mga aral patungkol sa buhay. Kadalasang tinutukoy ng mga ito ang kaugalian ng mga tao. Sa Pilipinas, sinasabing ang mga salawikain ay ginagamit bilang mga pahiwatig.


Sagana sa puri, dukha sa sarili.

- Mga taong mahilig magbigay papuri sa ibang tao ngunit pagdating sa kanyang sarili ay walang katiwa-tiwala. Minsan pa’y sa kanya pa mismo nagmumula ang pangungutya sa kanyang sarili.

Ang hindi napagod magtipon, walang hinayang magtapon.

- Ang mga bagay na nakuha mo ng hindi mo pinaghihirapan ay madaling maubos sapagkat hindi mo naranasan ang hirap bago mo ito makuha kung kaya’t wala lang sa’yo kung agad din itong mawawala.

Ang gawa sa pagkabata,dala hanggang pagtanda.

- Ang mga bagay o paniniwalang nakalakihan mo na sa iyong pagkabata ay mahirap nang baguhin. Masama mang pag-uugali, kung ito na ang kinamulatan mo, at sa panahon nang iyong kabataan ay hindi ito naiwasto, mahirap na itong burahin at baguhin sa kasalukuyang panahon.

Kung sino ang masalita ay siyang kulang sa gawa.

- Kadalasan, kung sino pa ang taong panay ang utos, siya pa mismo ang talagang ayaw namang gumawa at kumilos.

Ubus-ubos biyaya, pagkatapos nakatunganga.

- Nasasalamin nito ang kaugalian ng mga Pilipino noon kung saan pagkakadating ng pera o araw ng sweldo, kung makagastos animo pyesta, hindi na iniisip ang mga gastusin para sa mga susunod pang mga araw.

Ano ang Pabula at mga Halimbawa nito

Pabula Si Pagong at si Matsing

Ang Pabula ay isang uri ng panitikan kung saan ang mga tauhan ay mga hayop na kumikilos at nag-aasal na parang tao. Ito ay nagbibigay ng moral na aral sa mga batang mambabasa. Patuk na patok sa mga bata ang ganitong uri ng kwento sapagkat napupukaw ang kanilang atensyon sa mga karakter na bumubuo sa istorya.
Noong unang panahon ginamit na tauhan ang mga hayop upang makaiwas sa pagkakaroon ng alitan ng mga tao nang dahil sa maling akala na ang kanilang lahi o lipi ang tinatalakay o pinupuna sa kwento.
Ito ay kadalasang naglalaman ng mga aral tungkol sa kabutihang asal ng isang tao na madalas na ding gamitin sa panahon ngayon upang turuan hindi lang ang mga bata kundi pati ang mga matatanda.

Limang Halimbawa ng Pabula

Ang Daga at ang Leon
Isang magandang araw ang bumungad sa masiyahing daga. Nasa kalagitnaan siya ng pamamasyal at paglalaro nang makita niyang himbing na natutulog ang isang malaking leon. Natuwa siya sa malawak na likuran nito na animo’y isang malaking padausdusan kaya’t naisip niyang umakyat doon at magpadausdos paibaba. Hindi niya naman namalayan na nagising ang natutulog na Leon. Sa pagkagising ng Leon ay agad niyang dinakma sa buntot ang kawawang daga at umaktong isusubo ito, nang malapit na sa bibig ng Leon ay nagsalita ang Daga at humingi ng paumanhin.
“Kaibigang Leon, ipagpaumanhin mo ang aking kalapastanganan, hindi ko sinasadyang gisingin ka sa gitna ng iyong pagtulog, labis lang akong natuwa kung kaya’t naisipan kong maglaro sa iyong likuran. Nawa’y patawarin mo ako at hayaan akong mabuhay pa. Huwag mo kong kainin sapagkat ako’y malansa at hindi ka mabubusog sa kakarampot kong katawan.” Anang Daga.
Naawa naman ang Leon sa Daga kung kaya’t pinakawalan niya ito.
“Sa susunod ay wag mo nang gagambalain ang pagtulog ko. Makakalaya ka na.” Sabi ng Leon.
“Salamat Kaibigan, baling araw ay masusuklian ko din ang kabutihang loob mo.” Sabi ng daga.
“Ang isang maliit na dagang gaya mo? Ano naman kayang pabor ang magagawa mo para sa isang malakig hayop na gaya ko. Nagpapatawa ka Kaibigan.”
“Balang araw Kaibigan, matutulungan din kita. Hanggang sa muli, Paalam!”

Lumipas ang mga araw na masayang namumuhay ang Daga hanggang sa minsan sumagi sa isip niya kung kamusta na kaya ang kalagayan ng kaibigan niyang Leon. Naisipan niyang dalawin ang Leon sa tahanan nito pero laking gulat niya nang makitang nasa loob ng lambat na nakasabit sa isang puno ang malaking Leon. Agad –agad namang nginatngat ng Daga ang lubid na lambat at matapos ang ilang minuto ay naputol ang lubid at nakawala ang Leon.
“Maraming Salamat Kaibigang Daga. Minaliit ko ang kakayahan mo, di ko inakala na ikaw pa ang makapagliligtas sa akin. Utang ko sa’yo ang aking kalayaan at ang aking buhay. Maraming Salamat Kaibigan!”
“Walang anuman Kaibigan, hindi ba’t sinabi ko sa’yo? Matutulungan din kita baling araw. Maliit man ako, maabilidad naman ako!”

Aral: Huwag maliitin ang kakayahan ng isang tao batay sa kanyang anyo o laki, maliit ka man hindi ibig sabihin nito na limitado lang ang maari mong gawin.

Ang Aso at ang Kanyang Anino
Naglalakad ang aso sa kahabaan ng kalsada ng may maaninag siyang nakaumbok sa lupa. Agad niya itong nilapitan at natuwa siya ng makitang isang malaking buto ang nakatusok sa lupa. Dali-dali niya itong hinukay at kinagat. Tuwang-tuwa siyang naglakad pauwi bitbit ang buto sa kanyang bibig. Sa kanyang paglalakad ay napadaan siya sa isang tulay upang makauwi ng mas mabilis, sa ilalim ng tulay ay ang ilog, habang naglalakad ay napagawi ang tingin niya sa ilog at nagulat siya sa repleksyong nakita niya. Isang malaking aso na may bitbit na malaking buto ang kanyang nakita, sa pag-aakalang ibang aso ito, tinahulan niya ito ng tinahulan, upang ito’y matakot at ibigay sa kanya ang buto. Kakatahol, nabitawan niya ang bitbit na buto at nalaglag pa siya sa ilog. Umuwi siyang basang-basa at ang buto namang dapat ay dala niya ay naanod sa ilog.

Aral: Huwag maging ganid bagkus ay makuntento ka sa kung anong meron ka.

Ang Madaldal na Pagong
Isang umagang maganda ang panahon ay nagkita-kita ang magkakaibigan sa sapa, Sina Inang gansa, Amang gansa at Madaldal na pagong. Sila’y nagkwentuhan ng kung anu-anong bagay hanggang sa magpaalam ang dalawang gansa na sila’y uuwi na.
Naisipan ng Pagong na nais niyang sumama sa tahanan ng mga gansa. “Bakit hindi ninyo ako isama sa inyong tahanan? Nais kong sumama!”
“Ngunit wala kang pakpak Pagong. Paano ka makakalipad papunta sa aming tahanan?” sabi ni Inang Gansa.
Nag-isip ang tatlo ng paraan kung paano makakasama si Madaldal na Pagong.
“Alam ko na!” sabi ni Amang Pagong. “Kukuha tayo ng kahoy na maari nating kagating tatlo. Kakagatin namin ni Inang gansa ang magkabilang dulo at ikaw ay kakagat sa bandang gitna at sabay kaming lilipad. Sa ganoong paraan ay makapupunta ka sa aming tahanan. Ngunit lagi mong tatandaan, huwag na huwag kang magsasalita kundi ika’y mahuhulog sa lupa.”
“Pangako, tatandaan ko!” anang Pagong.
Napangiti si Pagong sa ideya at dali-daling humanap ng kahoy. Maya-maya pa ay lumipad na ang dalawang gansa bitbit ang madaldal na Pagong.
Labis na natuwa ang Pagong dahil sa bagong tanawin na kanyang nakikita.. Maya-maya ay nagtumpukan ang mga bata sa ibaba at sinisigaw ang kanilang pagkamangha sa nakikita.
“Ang galing ng Pagong! Siya’y lumilipad! Ang galing!” sigaw ng mga bata.

Labis na natuwa ang Pagong at naisipan niyang magyabang sa mga bata.

“Ako ang Dakilang Pago—“

Hindi na naituloy ng pagong ang kanyang sasabihin dahil nahulog siya mula sa pagkakakagat sa kahoy. Lumagpak siya sa lupa at sising-sisi,dahil sa pagmamayabang ay nahulog siya at di nakasama sa mag-asawang gansa.

Aral: Ang Pangako ay dapat tinutupad. Kahit na anong tagumpay mo, kung paiiralin mo ang kayabangan ay wala kang mararating.

Ang Agila at Ang Maya
Isang araw ay nakasalubong ni Maya ang mayabang na Agila habang ipinagmamalaki nito ang bilis di umano nito sa paglipad, dahil nayabangan si Maya, naisip niyang yayaing makipagdwelo sa Agila.

Makulimlim ang kalangitan at tiyak niyang uulan mamaya-maya kung kaya’t nakaisip ng magandang ideya ang Maya. “Agila, akin kitang hinahamon sa pabilisang lumipad.”
“Niloloko mo ba munting Maya? Ako? Ang Agila? Ay hinahamon sa isang dwelo?” anang Agila na sinundan ng mapanglait na tawa.
“Oo, magaling na Agila. Tama ka. Hinahamon kita. Paunahang makarating sa bundok na iyon! Ngunit lilipad tayong may bitbit, mamili ka, asin o bulak?”
“May bitbit?” Napaisip ang Agila, kung ang bulak ang dadalhin niya ay tiyak na mananalo siya dahil ito’y magaan hindi gaya ng asin na ubod ng bigat. “Akin ang bulak!”bulalas ng Agila.
Lihim na napangiti ang Maya sa desisyon ng Agila. “Magaling, Bulak ang iyo, Asin ang akin. Tayo nang mag-umpisa!”

Sa pag-uumpisa ng karera ay talaga namang hirap na hirap ang munting Maya sa paglipad lalo na at kay bigat nang dala niyang asin. Tuwang-tuwa naman ang Agila dahil alam nyang siya na ang mananalo.
“Ano ba naman kasi ang nasa isip ng Maya na iyon? Nagawa pa kong hamunin e alam naman ng lahat na mabilis talaga akong lumipad. Kaawa-awang Maya. Ako na naman ang mananalo!”

Sa kalagitnaan ng karera ay nag-umpisa nang bumuhos ang ulan, sa pagpatak nito ay siya namang tuwa ng Maya. Unti-unting gumaan ang dalahin ng Maya dahil unti-unting natunaw ang Asin na dala-dala niya. Kabaligtaran naman nang kay Agila na mas bumigat ang dalahing bulak dahil nabasa ito ng tubig. Dahil sa paggaan ng dala ni Maya ay unti-unti siyang nakabawi sa karera at kalaunan ay nanguna sa dwelo. Lumong-lumo ang Agila ng makarating sa bundok, mabigat man sa loob ay tinanggap niya ang kanyang pagkatalo.

Aral: Huwag maging mayabang sa ating kapwa bagkus ay maging mapagkumbaba. Huwag mangmaliit ng kakayahan ng iyong kapwa.

Ang Alitaptap at ang Paru-paro
Isang araw habang naghahanap ng nectar ang Paru-paro ay may batang nanghuli sa kanya at siya’y pinaglaruan. Iniwan siya nitong nakabaligtad at panay ang kawag sa lupa.
Sumigaw si Paru-paro upang humingi ng tulong, narinig siya ng kaibigang Langgam ngunit dahil madami itong gawain ay iniwan siya nito. Makalipas ang ilang oras ay dumating ang kaibigan niyang gagamba ngunit hindi rin siya nito tinulungan sapagkat ayon dito ay aayusin pa nito ang bahay nito.

Malapit nang gumabi ngunit nanatili pa ding nakabaligtad ang Paru-paro. Pagod at gutom ang nararamdaman nang Paru-paro. Pinanghihinaan siyang may mga kapwa insekto pang makakita sa kanya lalo na’t magdidilim na. Hanggang sa maya-maya ay may naaninag siyang munting ilaw na papalapit sa kanya.
“Anong nangyari sa’yo Paru-paro?” tanong ng Alitaptap.
“Ikaw pala Alitaptap, kaninang umaga ay nangunguha ako ng nectar ng may batang lumapit at pinaglaruan ako.”
“Ganun ba? Hayaan mo at tutulungan kita.” Sabi ng Alitaptap.
“Maraming Salamat , Alitaptap.”
Tinulungan nga ng Alitaptap ang Paru-paro at dahil doon ay nakalipad na ang Paru-paro at umuwi sa kanyang tahanang bulaklak.

Aral: Sa oras ng kagipitan ay nakikilala natin kung sino ang ating mga tunay na kaibigan.

Ano ang tayutay

images Ang Tayutay ay sadyang paglayo sa paggamit ng mga pangkaraniwang salita upang maging kaakit-akit at mabisa ang pagpapahayag.

Uri ng Tayutay

  1. Pagtutulad (Simile) – uri ng paghahambing ng dalawang magkaibang bagay na ginagamitan ng mga pariralang katulad ng, gaya ng, at iba pa. Halimbawa: Ang mga mata mo’y sing ningning ng mga bituin sa langit.
  2. Pagwawangis (Metaphor) – ikalawang uri paghahambing na katulad din ng pagtutulad ngunit ito’y tiyakang paghahambing at hindi gumagamit ng ng mga pariralang tulad ng, gaya ng, at iba pa. Halimbawa: Ang iyong mga mata’y maningning na bituin sa akin.
  3. Pagmamalabis (Hyperbole) – lubhang pinalalabis o pinakukulang ang tunay na kalagayan ng tao, bagay, o pangyayari. Halimbawa: Nag-aapoy sag alit si Mang Berto sa kanyang anak na nagtanan.
  4. Pagbibigay ng Katauhan (Personification) – Pagbibigay ng katangian ng isang tao sa bagay na walang buhay. Halimbawa: Umiiyak ang langit sa pagpanaw ng butihing mamamayan.
  5. Pagpapalit-saklaw (Synechdoche) – pagpapahayag sa pamamagitan ng pagbanggit sa bahagi bilang pagtukoy sa kabuuan. Halimbawa: Libong tao ang nawalan, nang ang gubat ay masira.
  6. Pagtawag (apostrophe) – pakikipag-usap sa karaniwang bagay na malayo o wala naman. Halimbawa: O, Panginoon Diyos kami po ay Iyong gabayan sa bawat araw.
  7. Pag-uyam (Irony) – isang pangungutya sa pamamagitan ng paggamit ng mga salitang kapuri-puri ngunit kabaligtaran naman ang kahulugan. Halimbawa: Napakaganda ng iyong buhok, bagay gamiting panglinis ng bahay.
  8. Pagtatanong (rhetorical question) – pahayag na gumagamit ng tanong na hindi naghihintay ng sagot. Sa pamamagitan nito ay nailalahad ang katanungan at kapamilyang kasagutan kung matatanggap o hindi ang isang bagay. Halimbawa: Bakit nagkaganito ang mahal kong kalikasan?
  9. Pag-uulit (alliteration) – nakikita ang tayutay na ito saanmang bahagi ng taludtod o pangungusap kapag ang unang titik o pantig ng salita ay inuulit ng ilang beses. Halimbawa: magsimula tayong lahat magsimula para sa pagbabago magsimula upang kaunlaran ay makamtan.
  10. Paghihimig (onomatopoeia) – paggamit ng mga salita na kung ano ang tunog ay siya ring kahulugan. Halimbawa: Ang sagitsit ng hangin ay nagbabadya ng paparating na panganib.
  11. Pagtatambis (antithesis o oxymoron) – pagsasama-sama o pag-uugnay-ugnay ng dalawang bagay na magkasalunagt nang mangingibabaw lalo ang katangiang ipinahahayag. Halimbawa: Mabait – masama, marunong – mangmang, kaakit-akit – kasuklam-suklam. Ilang katangiang makikita sa mga taong nilalang ng Diyos.
  12. Pagtanggi (litotes) – Hindi ang pangunahing hudyat nitong salita na sa akda ay sadyang pagsalungat, pagpigil o di pagsang-ayon, ngunit ito’y pakunwari lamang, isang kabaliktaran, sapagkat ang hindi ay sadyang nagpapahiwatig ng pagtulot o pahintulot. Halimbawa: Hindi sa ayoko sa taong minamahal mo, nais ko lamang muna ay mag-igi ka sa iyong pag-aaral.